In medieval times and in poetic language also Fiorenza, (Florentia in Latin) is an Italian municipality of 379 194 inhabitants , capital of Tuscany and center of the metropolitan city, eighth Italian municipality by population and the first in Tuscany, the heart of the metropolitan area of ​​Florence-Prato-Pistoia.

In the Middle Ages it was an important artistic, cultural, commercial, political, economic and financial center; in the modern age it covered the role of capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany from 1569 to 1859 which, with the rule of the Medici and Lorraine families, became one of the richest and most modern states. The various political vicissitudes, the financial and mercantile power and the influences in every field of culture have made the city a fundamental crossroads of Italian and European history. In 1865 Florence was proclaimed capital of the Kingdom of Italy (second, after Turin), maintaining this status until 1871, the year that marks the end of the Risorgimento.

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